Introduction

The site which we have selected is http://www.butlercourt.com. We have chosen this site for a number of reasons. Firstly it is an Irish website about a guesthouse in Kilkenny. The site also meets the criteria for having the necessary variety in web pages. Each of the pages we analyzed had a different aspect of usability and accessibility. After reading Krug’s “Don’t Make Me Think!”, sites should really not make such elementary mistakes.

The accessibility evaluation was carried out according to the guidelines laid down by the W3 WAI guide for conducting a preliminary evaluation of website accessibility. A real preliminary evaluation would usually be carried out over ten to fifteen resources however for the purpose of this assignment it was carried out over three resources. The three resources chosen were the homepage, the location page and the bookings page.

The homepage was chosen because it is the page most people will arrive at and therefore their opinion will be formed on the basis of the quality of this page.

The bookings page was chosen because this page contains the forms needed to request a booking. These forms have a number of their own accessibility issues so it is imperative that they are configured to be accessible for all users.

The location page was lastly chosen because it contained the only map to the hotel. If this map wasn’t accessible to everyone than there is no other way of finding the hotel through the website.

Usability Evaluation

We have found a number of usability defects in the site and the results of the trunk test are listed. Krug’s 3 Laws of Internet Usage were also considered while writing this. Each page was analysed separately. The trunk test posed these questions:

  1. What site is this?
  2. What page am I on?
  3. What are the major sections of this site?
  4. What are my options at this level?
  5. Where am I in the scheme of things?
  6. How can I search?

As this is a guest accommodation site, question 3 and 4 are similar.

The web addresses of some of the pages use incorrect syntax.

The pages use tables for layout, which should be regarded as obsolete. HTML tables should be reserved for use only where there are some meaningful relationships between the information presented along rows or columns of the table. Pure visual layout should be preferably done with CSS, removing the HTML table markup. This creates a lot of free space in some of the pages, particularly Photographs and Bookings.

Omit needles words.

About Us

You cannot book a room directly from this website. You must email a “Butler Court Online Enquiry Form” in the Bookings section. It should be possible to book directly.

A search box may have made this route quicker and solves question 6 of the trunk test.

The Butler court image should be moved lower and centered. This area should contain the guest houses logo and tagline. Welcome to Butler Court Guest Accommodation is too small and should be more visible, solving question 1 of the trunk test.

The tabs should be utilised more effectively. Currently, the links satisfy question 3 and 4. They should highlight the page the user is currently viewing. This would remedy question 2.

The About Us text chunk should be edited as if a user does read this, it would be to find out about this Guesthouse, yet there is hardly a mention of its features.

The absence of breadcrumbs at the top of all pages is distinct and implementing this satisfies question 5.

The absence of a tagline. This would have given more information as the description is vague on the Home page.

A link on the 3rd frame displays read more Guest Reviews here. In the 2nd frame, a large Guest Reviews link is displayed. There is no need for repetition.

When you click on “Guest Reviews”, it brings up a review page. There is no tab for this page. It does not appear at the bottom of the page. The review page is extremely long for a user to remain interested. The two outer frames are very bare with no pictures.

The picture on the 3rd frame of the Home page, also present on Location, Tariff and Bookings, depicts the cover of “Rick Steve’s Ireland Guide 2006” with the caption underneath We are in Rick Steve’s Ireland Guide 2006. This picture should lead the user directly to the article.

Location

On the Location page in frame one, it displays Free – Butler Court Visitor’s Guide in yellow, however when you click the image nothing happens. Krug’s 1st law states Users scan pages. Upon scanning this page you would immediately click this image. Underneath this image displays a message informing the user that they provide guests with a free guide, another version of the small print. On this page, the movie Circle of Friends, Graiguenamanagh (Town of the Monks) and the Dunmore Caves are mentioned. These names should be links to pages with more information on the chosen subject.

Photographs

On the Photographs page, there is a link more photographs – click here. However on the page that pops up, the pictures are quite small and there is a lot of space un-utilised. The same can be said of the previous page as all the pictures are quite small and the use of tables is incorrect here.

Golf Courses

On the Golf courses page, A Day at the Races!, is in frame one. The title of this is misleading as it does not mention racing. Assuming that Butler Court wishes to attract race fanatics, this should be more visible at the very least. Click here for 2006 Gowran Park race fixtures is too small. This page also gives a list of golf courses with contact details. The name of the course does nothing. The name should go straight to the homepage of that course or other relevant information. It displays Click for Irish Golf.net Website, this should be larger.

Heritage

On the Heritage page, in frame 3 there is a list of historic sights. Shee Alms House, The Thosel and Rothe House are unclickable. These should be links to relevant documents. Again, the space on this page in frame 1 is not utilised correctly.

An issue with the links that do function is that they bring up new pages that are not on the map. The user is lost. The list at the bottom should include these and the absence of breadcrumbs contributes to this problem.

The image of Jerpoint in frame 1 on this page should redirect the user to the Jerpoint information page. The same image on the Home page directs the user to this page and if the user choose this route, a distinct possibility considering Krug’s 3rd rule, Users muddle through pages, they would certainly click the image again.

Room Features

The main depicts the courtyard. Our preference would be to have more relevant pictures of the room, maybe even the view that is available from some of the rooms.

Tariff and Bookings

On the Tariff page, it displays Please e-mail for varying off-season rates, these rates should be displayed. Tariff and Bookings should not be separate as this information would be considered the most important on the website.

Usability Test

The script in Chapter 9 was used on our test subjects and is included in Appendix I.

We tested 3 users. While one of us tested, the other recorded notes. This rotated alternatively and for the final test subject we shared the duties. The results of our testing comprises of the following:

  • For Question 1:

All 3 candidates are students, 2 studying Digital Media Engineering and the third, Media Production.

  • For Question 2:

Internet usage ranged from 15 to 90 hours per week.

  • For Question 3:

This time was spent on downloading, random searches, email, fantasy football, sports and news.

  • For Question 4:

Favourite websites included:

  • For Question 5:

For both sexes, the internet was a viable option to spend money online for services and paper based goods. However the males questioned preferred to buy general goods the conventional way as they favoured to see it before they made the purchase. The female found that many items of clothing were not available here and so she had little alternative.

  • For Question 6:

Items purchased online included flights, concert tickets and female clothes and shoes.

  • For Question 7:

All panellists realised that this was a guest accommodation site.1 user tried to click the main picture. They found the picture striking though they felt it did not represent the hotel. The same picture would be better suited to a restaurant. The other 2 users tried to click the Butler Court Image in the right hand corner. They felt that this should be the centre piece.

  • For Question 8:

2 users liked the general layout, links on the left, important information in the centre and other information on the right. All felt that the content was inappropriate. The picture was too large, About Us paragraph should be replaced with the general description on the right and the absence of a title.

  • For Question 9:

All users suggested booking a room and selected Bookings automatically. 2 users were disappointed when they realised that they could not find out immediately the availability of the Guest House. The 3rd commented that if he was in a hurry, this wait would send him to another site. However, all users thought that the online enquiry system worked adequately for its purpose.

  • For Question 10:

All users found the description of the golf courses too short and each course should be linked to its corresponding website. They wished to know which course was closest and where they were located on the map. This section had only one picture while it was felt that each course should be accompanied by a unique image. The favourite course was Mount Juliet, which was chosen by all as it is designed by Jack Nicklaus.

  • For Question 11:

2 users had difficulty finding the Heritage link. Both felt it should be named Historical Sites. However this could be blamed on the phrasing of the question. All found that greater information, particularly images, was required. All chose Kilkenny Castle as the site that interested them most, due to the quality of the image presented.

  • For Question 12:

All liked the pictures of the room but found that there were too many pictures of flowers. Suggestions included categorising all pictures, ability to enlarge all images and a description accompanying each image. Previous comments about images were all mentioned again.

  • For Question 13:

No user was confident of finding the accommodation with the map provided. All found that there was not enough roads displayed, the AA road finder link was too small and all clicked the map.

  • For Question 14:

All users would have liked to go to the races. No user could find the racing section. One completed this task by using the CTRL F function on 4 pages before finding it. All agreed that this should be easier to find, even renaming the Golf Courses section to Sport and Leisure.

  • For Question 15:

2 users were happy with what the site advertised. After reading the About Us section, the third user was disappointed. This section mentions the Watergate Theatre, restaurants, pubs, equestrian facilities and fishing. There is no more information about these activities mentioned on the site.

  • For Question 16:

All noticed the many statements displayed. One user felt that comments from respected critics should be added. Another felt that each caption should be beside a photograph.

  • For Question 17:

Information about local pubs, restaurants, events and festivals, equestrian facilities, room availability and fishing are all missing. Some of the information that is provided is very hard to find.

  • For Question 18:

Users commented in general that the site was easy to use for certain tasks but the search for racing was difficult. Some images mentioned previously should be links to aid navigation. About Us should be renamed to Home. Guest reviews are scattered throughout the site. Some of the information provided is not relevant to its section.

  • For Question 19:

All agreed that the site was not intrusive. One liked the option of choosing to ring instead of emailing when inquiring about a room.

  • For Question 20:

One commented that the Guest Reviews section maybe embellished but this was only speculation. Another mentioned again about the lack of information on the activities mentioned in the About Us section.

  • For Question 21:

All answered yes to this. Reasons included do not know what is clickable: some are links, some are not, irrelevant images, a link to Bookings is on practically every page including the Bookings page, the colour purple used to highlight which pages have been visited in the navigation convention at the bottom is very hard to make out,Rick Steve’s Guide to Ireland 2006 and the Trip Advisor link keep alternating sides on many of the pages.

  • For Question 22:

Users found the site mediocre. They liked the colour, the 3 frame layout and links on the left. Besides the points mentioned previously, they added that the space could be utilised better and more pictures of the actual Guesthouse.

Overall, these results match the conclusions drawn from our Usability Evaluation. It has brought more errors to light which has made this testing more rewarding. These have been included in our Recommendations For Improvement.

Accessibility Evaluation

The website being evaluated for this accessability test is http://www.butlercourt.com. The site is evaluated by a selecting a representative sampling of pages which contained the following criteria:

  • Web pages with tables, forms, or dynamically generated results;
  • Web pages with informative images such as diagrams or graphs;
  • Web pages with scripts or applications that perform functionality.
  • Web pages which people are most likely to enter (Homepage)

The three pages we selected were the homepage, the location page and the bookings page.

All of the tests were carried out on the GUI brouwsers Firefox, Opera and Internet Explorer.

In order to carry out an accessability tests on this site the W3 WAI guide to conducting a preliminary evaluation of site accessability was the template we followed.

The first page to be evaluated was the homepage. According to the W3 WAI guide the first step is to turn off all images to check for an appropriate alt text is in place. The first thing we noticed was there were no alt values for the site navigation bar on the left handside. All of the images are clickable yet there is no information to say so in the alt text. On the right hand side of the page there is another link to the bookings page but this also has no alt tab, instead it has text under the picture indicating that it is clickable. In contrast to this there is an alt value for the trip advisor link under the navigation bar. For the decorative images in the center of the site there is a long winded alt value. This is of no value to the user as the image is purely decorational and has no value to a user who isn’t using the visual display.

The next step was to test the sound by turning it off to see whether audio content is still available through text equivalents. As this site has no audio content this test doesn’t apply to our evaluation.

The next step was to check the site with varing font sizes. As the text size is increased the page reloads very well and there is no overlapping of the text and images. However at one point an image does overlap with the navigation bar at the bottom. This only occurs once at a certain magnification and does not occur again. The one big problem with the page is that the navigation bar at the left hand side stays the same size for increased and decreased font sizes. This renderes it useless as the main location for navigation through the site. After many magnifications a horizontal bar will appear.

The next test to be carried out was to resize the application window to a smaller size to verify that no horizontal navigation bar is required. The page fails instantly on this test. As soon as the horizontal size is decreased from full size the navigation bar appears.

The next test was to observe contrast in the pages colour scheme. This was done by printing out the page on a black and white printer. The results from this were that the contrast between the background and the text was different enough to be ledgeable by a person with colour blindness.

The final test that we carried out was to check if the site was navigable without using the mouse. All of the links were accessable through the method of using the tab key. One small problem with this was that with two of the clickable images, underneath the navigation bar, it was difficult to see at a glance if they were now highlighted.

The next page to be tested was the location page. The results on this page were very similar to the home page. With regards the alt values the side navigation again has no alt values and yet there are some clickable images which have them .There are also descriptive alt values for images which are not necessary.

Increasing and decreaseing the text size gave up the same results as in the previous test. The image of the map, which is central to this page, doesn’t scale up which makes it difficult to read for users with poor vision.

The problems of the horizontal bar appearing with the resizing of the application again makes an appearance and the issue of the tab button is again encountering the same problems.

The last page to be analysed is the bookings page. Alt attributes are again missing form this page but it is not as prevalent as in other pages.

As the size of the text increases the field of the form begin to overlap outside of their frame. This only occurs with Firefox and the same problem doesn’t happen with Internet Explorer or Opera. The tab button has the same problems as in the other pages however it does work well for accessing the form.

The automated evaluation tool used for this test was Acc – An Accessability Evaluator extention for firefox. The results given by this for the homepage were:

Homepage

  • Required alt attribute missing (17 occurances)
  • Link opens a new window (5 occurances)
  • Primary language not identified (1 occurance)
  • Avoid presentational & depracted elements (39 occurances)
  • Deeply nested layout tables (1 occurance)
  • Page isn’t scaleable (1 occurance)

Location

  • Required alt attribute missing (21 occurances)
  • Link opens a new window (7 occurances)
  • Primary language not identified (1 occurance)
  • Avoid presentational & depracted elements (38 occurances)
  • Deeply nested layout tables (3 occurances)
  • Page isn’t scaleable (1 occurance)

Bookings

  • Required alt attribute missing (17 occurances)
  • Link opens a new window (6 occurances)
  • Primary language not identified (1 occurance)
  • Avoid presentational & depracted elements (48 occurances)
  • Form elements aren’t grouped (13 occurances)
  • Form elements without label (10 occurances)
  • Deeply nested layout tables (2 occurances)
  • Page isn’t scaleable (1 occurance)

Recommendations for Improvement

Our primary aim is to make this a “think free” website. Appendix II shows our new Homepage.

Our recommendations to achieve this include the following:

Change the syntax of the addresses of About Us, Heritage and Bookings.

Enable an online booking system as we feel a percentage of users navigating to this page would be trying to reserve a room. In our experience, we have found it easier to book online than other methods. Returning users could create accounts with their credit card information retained by the Guesthouse in order to shorten the time process it takes to complete a reservation. This login box would be placed on the Home page. Becoming a member would be entirely optional and the minimum information required from the user would only be extracted in order to keep this process short. The Guesthouse may consider creating a newsletter informing members of special discounts. This alternative would also be kept optional.

Add a tagline. This is easy advertisement. We have chosen “!!!Enjoy a little bit of luxury!!!” to emphasise that this is luxurious accommodation.

Add a search box to aid users more comfortable with this mechanism.

The About Us section shall be moved lower on the page. A more specific description of the Guesthouse should be inserted here.

The picture on the 3rd frame of the Home page, also present on Location, Tariff and Bookings, depicts the cover of “Rick Steve’s Ireland Guide 2006” with the caption underneath “We are in Rick Steve’s Ireland Guide 2006”. This picture should redirect the user to the article.

All needless words shall be omitted. Listed are a few examples:

  • We are listed on Trip Advisor should be changed to Listed on Trip Advisor
  • The About us section could be shortened or edited to be more specific.
  • We are proud to be featured in Rick Steve’s Ireland 2006 guidebook should be changed to Featured in Rick Steve’s Ireland 2006 guidebook
  • See some pictures below of great places to visit in the area: should be changed to Great places to visit in the area:

The small text navigational convention used at the bottom of the page could be utilised better ie: if viewing home, home should be highlighted.

Add breadcrumbs to each page. This could be done in the form of tabs. These should be colour coded. The small text convention used at the bottom of the page would be edited to highlight the page that is currently being viewed.

The visual layout should be done with CSS, removing the HTML table mark-up. This creates a lot of free space in some of the pages.

The Tariff and Bookings section should contain Special Offers that are currently available.

The “Guest Reviews” would be added to the tabs field.

When you click on “Guest Reviews”, it brings up a review page. It does not appear at the bottom of the page. It would be added to this list. The review page is extremely long. The two outer frames are very bare with no pictures. We would prefer a better visual hierarchy with this page. Instead of dividing the page into three tables, we would use one frame and insert pictures beside each comment. This would greatly reduce scrolling down the page.

On the index page, removing the reference of Guest Reviews in the 2nd frame to the 3rd as it does not need to appear twice.

On the Location page in frame one, it displays Free – Butler Court Visitor’s Guide in yellow, however when you click the image nothing happens. Upon scanning this page you would immediately click this image. A free downloadable version would be easy to offer and should be made available. Also, on this page, the movie Circle of Friends, Graiguenamanagh (Town of the Monks) and the Dunmore Caves are mentioned. These names should redirect the user to pages with more information on the chosen subject.

On the Photographs page, one page would suffice with the ability to enlarge the photos. Any extra photos should be added to the spaces of the other pages. All space would be utilised.

On the Golfing page, races should be promoted to a single page and added to the tabs.

Each of the golf courses listed should redirect the user to the homepage of the selected golf course when clicked. After researching, Gowran Park, Mount Juliet, Borris, Callan, Mount Wolsley and Castlecomer Golf Clubs all have their own unique websites. Kilkenny and Waterford City Golf Clubs do not have personal websites but the user could be redirected to irishgolf.net or a similar suitable link. On the Heritage page, Shee Alms House, The Thosel and Rothe House are unclickable. These would be changed to redirect to relevant documents. More information should be given on the other historic sites mentioned.

Tariff and Bookings would be placed together with a new section of Special Offers which Butler Court should update whenever changes arise. This would eliminate the free space on this page. This page would be divided into clearly defined areas. This shall be linked to the Home page.

As many elements as possible should be clickable. Many of the present clickable objects should be made more visible to the user.

The following additions are results from our testing:

The map should be changed to a clickable image leading to the AA route finder. The current format Motoring in Ireland? – Browse the AA route planner here is too small. The font should be increased and changed to “AA Route Planner For Motorists”.

A new section, Entertainment shall be added to the tabs menu. This shall contain more information on the Watergate Theatre, pubs and restaurants.

Fishing shall be added to the Golf section. The page shall be split into 2 sections.

Adding comments from respected critics.

Renaming About Us to Home.

Removing the Bookings link from most of the pages.

Configuring the links to Rick Steve’s Guide to Ireland 2006 and Trip Advisor to remain static.

Categorising the pictures in the Photographs section and rearranging the pictures throughout the site. More pictures of the actual Guesthouse must be posted.

Changing the colour purple to green for pages that have been visited at the bottom of each page. The colour used is hard to distinguish.

The tabs on the left shall be increased and modified to these sections:

  1. Home
  2. Location
  3. Photographs
  4. Golf and Fishing
  5. Entertainment
  6. Guest Reviews
  7. Equestrian and Racing
  8. Historical Sites
  9. Room Features
  10. Tariff and Bookings

Chapter 10 of Krug’s book, mentions increasing the goodwill of your user. By implementing these steps, we will achieve that. Our redesigned site, make the choices available more obvious and easy. We have included more sections to tell the user what they want to know. By including more links, we are saving the user more steps in their search for information.

The first recommendation we would make with regards to accessibility would be to provide alt attributes for the side navigation. For instance ‘About Us’ alt = ‘click for homepage’, ‘Location’ alt = ‘click for map’. This would have to be implemented as the lack of alternative text on these links would leave a huge gap in the information displayed on for instance a Braille output.

The images displayed on all pages should be scaleable when the application window is reduced in size. This would remove the horizontal navigation bar that appears when the window size is reduced.

On the location page the image of the map should scale up along with the text. As this image is the central theme of the page it has to be access accessible to all users. As the image doesn’t scale up users with poor vision would be unable to make use of the map and this would render this page completely irrelevant to them.

Considering the results of the previous test, the colour scheme on this page wouldn’t have to be changed as it already offers enough contrast.

The navigation through the website without using the mouse is generally very good. The one recommendation we would make would be to put a black border around the clickable images. This would offer some contrast when the cursor is over the image to make it instantly recognisable with regards to the current location of the cursor.

Another recommendation we would make would be to have an audio description for the map image on the location page. The audio would only need to be a simple description of the major roads, local landmarks and their relation to the hotel. Such a device would be helpful to any user who is unable to read the map.

Conclusion

This module has given us the skills and confidence to practise as Usability and Accessibility Experts. This has opened a career path that neither of us had previously considered. We no longer are able to view a page without singling out all of the mistakes.

Although the module only offered a brief insight to the construction of a web sight it has sparked interest into further investigation into the subject. The websites we constructed at the begining of the module gave an excellent starting point for advancement into creating more advanced pages.

Considering the other modules during this semester have had a heavy mathematical base it was enjoyable to have module with an emphasis on visual design. As one of the few modules that personal taste and opinion are a big part of the course, it offers some light relief from an otherwise heavily theoretical curriculum.

We are planning on sending our results to Butler Court as we would really like to see our recommendations implemented.

With regard to improving the learning experience for future students, we would suggest the addition of XML. To learn another technology would be difficult as the course is extremely challenging but it could be possible to dedicate a single week to this. While we would not master this language in such a short time period, we would have benifitted learning the basics from our experienced lecturer.

Bibliography

Dont Make Me Think! Steve Krug, New Riders Publishing, 2006.

Homepage Usability. 50 Websites Deconstructed. Jakob Nielsen & Marie Tahir, New Riders Publishing, 2002.

References

http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/preliminary.html

http://www.sitepoint.com/article/dont-need-usability-lab

http://www.w3schools.com/

http://www.w3.org/TR/WAI-WEBCONTENT/

http://www.w3.org/WAI/eval/preliminary.html

http://www.w3.org/WAI/EO/Drafts/PWD-Use-Web/

http://www.w3.org/WAI/

Appendix I

This is the script used for testing:

Hi, XXXXXXXXX. My name is Sameer Kumar / Stefan Carr, and I’m going to be walking you through this session. You probably already know, but let me explain why we’ve asked you to come here today: We’re testing a web site that we’re working on to see what it’s like for actual people to use it. I want to make it clear right away that we’re testing the site, not you. You can’t do anything wrong here. In fact, this is probably the one place today where you don’t have to worry about making mistakes. We want to hear exactly what you think, so please don’t worry that you’re going to hurt our feelings. We want to improve it, so we need to know honestly what you think. As we go along, I’m going to ask you to think out loud, to tell me what’s going through your mind. This will help us. If you have questions, just ask. I may not be able to answer them right away, since we’re interested in how people do when they don’t have someone sitting next to them, but I will try to answer any questions you still have when we’re done. We have a lot to do, and I’m going to try to keep us moving, but we’ll try to make sure that it’s fun, too. Do you have any questions before we begin?

“Don’t worry about hurting my feelings. I didn’t create the pages you’re going to look at.”

  1. Before we look at the site, I’d like to ask you just a few quick questions. First, what’s your occupation?
  2. Good. Now, roughly how many hours a week would you say you spend using the Internet, including email?
  3. How do you spend that time? In a typical day, for instance, tell me what you do, at work and at home.
  4. Do you have any favorite Web sites?
  5. Now, finally, have you bought anything on the Internet? How do you feel about buying things on the Internet?
  6. And what have you bought?
  • OK, great. We’re done with the questions, and we can start looking at things.

7.First, I’m just going to ask you to look at this page and tell me what you think it is, what strikes you about it, and what you think you would click on first.

  • And again, as much as possible, it will help us if you can try to think out loud so we know what you’re thinking about.

8.Before you click on it, I have one more question. Do you like the layout of this page?

  • OK, now we’re going to try something else.

9.Can you think of something you would use this website for? Would you like to try and book a room? How would you do that?

10.Do you like to play golf? (Regardless), what course would you like to visit the most? Please think out loud.

11.Which historical site would you like to visit the most?

12.What do you think of the photographs available overall? What do you think of the Photograph section?

13.Do you think you could find this guesthouse with the directions provided?

14.Would racing be something you would like to do in Kilkenny ?

15.Does the website offer everything it advertises?

16.Do you like the Guest Reviews section?

17.Does the website provide all the information that you want?

18.Is it easy to use? Does it overcomplicate certain tasks in any way?

19.Is the website intrusive in any way, asks for information they don’t really need?

20.Do you notice any false sincerity on this site? Is the site trying to con you in any way?

21.Does the site slow you down as you scan through it?

22.What are your general impressions of this site? Is it professional?

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“Don’t make me think” acutely describes the content of this book. Steve Krug’s advice is easy to understand and complements his method with the layout of websites. The short nature of this book makes it an enjoyable read. The collection of various screenshots and cartoons etch this book in our minds.

His “facts of life” are the fundamental behavioural characteristics of everyday users.

  1. Users do not read pages, they scan them.
  2. Users do not select the optimal choice, only the first reasonable one.
  3. Users do not read instructions, they “guess” their way.

These suggest how essential it is to keep web pages simple. User inputs should be kept to minimum in order to achieve maximum potential.

Krug covers homepage and site layout, navigation design and usability design comprehensively. The use of breadcrumbs, tabs, effective taglines are nuggets which can be adapted to any website.

I would definitely use this guide as a rule book in future projects.

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